UCW - YOUTH EMPLOYMENT DATABASE

This section provides the list of indicators included in the youthStats database and their definitions.
Indicator Definition
Distribution of youth population by main activity status (employed, unemployed, inactive) The total youth population is divided into three main activity status: employed, unemployed and inactive. This measure gives the proportion of employed population, the proportion of the unemployed population and the proportion of inactive population in the total population.
Labour force participation rate The labour force participation rate is a measure of the proportion of a country’s working-age population that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. It provides an indication of the relative size of the supply of labour available to engage in the production of goods and services. The concept of economic activity was adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Economic activity (aka labour force participation) is defined broadly in terms of the production of goods and services as set forth in the System of National Accounts (SNA). Persons are considered economically active if (and only if) they contribute or are available to contribute to the production of goods and services falling within the SNA production boundary.
Inactivity rate The inactivity rate is a measure of the proportion of a country’s working-age population that is not engaged actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work. Persons may be inactive for a number of reasons, including because they are full time students, disabled, or taking care of the family home or children. The concept of economic activity was adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Economic activity (aka labour force participation) is defined broadly in terms of the production of goods and services as set forth in the System of National Accounts (SNA). Persons are considered economically inactive if (and only if) they did contribute or are not available to contribute to the production of goods and services falling within the SNA production boundary.
Employment-to-population ratio The employment-to-population ratio is defined as the proportion of a country’s working-age population that is employed. A high ratio indicates that a large proportion of a country’s population is employed, while a low ratio indicates that a large share of the population is not involved directly in market-related activities, because they are either unemployed or (more likely) out of the labour force. Persons engaged in economic activities for a specified time period are said to be employed. An employed person may not actually be working during the reference week because of temporary reasons like illness, annual leave, shortage of raw materials, off-season, etc., but so long as the person has a job attachment or an enterprise that continues to exist, he/she is considered to be employed. According to the international definition of employment adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians, a person is considered to be employed if he/she has worked even for as little as one hour during the reference week.
Unemployment-to-population ratio The unemployment-to-population ratio is defined as the proportion of a country’s working-age population that is unemployed. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
School attendance rate The school attendance rate indicates the share of persons currently attending school in the country's youth population estimates.
NEET (neither in employment nor education) share in population The NEET share is a measure of the percentage of youth who are neither in employment nor in education. The indicator captures young people who are inactive for reasons other than participation in education (thus including the discouraged workers but also persons who are inactive for other reasons) and youth who are unemployed. It is, therefore, a good proxy for capturing the non-utilized labour potential of the youth population.
Unemployment rate The unemployment rate is the proportion of the labour force that does not have a job and is actively looking and available for work. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Share of discouraged workers in labour force Discouraged workers are individuals without work and available for work, who are not actively seeking a job because they are discouraged about their prospects of finding one. The share of discouraged workers in the labour force relates the estimated number of discouraged workers to the country's population in the labour force.
Share of inactive population by reason for inactivity The reasons for inactivity are harmonized in five groups: discouraged, students, sick or disabled, homemakers and other (which comprise the inactive individuals who are not classified in the four preceding categories). The share of inactive population by reason for inactivity is the distribution of the inactive population across the five reasons for inactivity.
Time-related underemployed as share of total employment Underemployment reflects underutilization of the productive capacity of the labour force. Time-related underemployment, as the only component of underemployment to date that has been agreed on and properly defined within the international community of labour statisticians, is, therefore, the best available proxy of the underutilized labour force. The time-related-underemployed as share of total employment is measured as those who work less than 40 hours per week and who want and/or available to work more hours. The international definition of time-related underemployment was adopted in 1982 by the 13th ICLS and amended in 1998 by the 16th ICLS. It includes all persons in employment whose hours of work “are insufficient in relation to an alternative employment situation in which the person is willing and available to engage”.
Share of employees by permanent/temporary contract The definition of permanent contract covers only employees and refers to employees working on the basis of an unlimited duration contract, as opposed to a limited duration contract. The share of employed by permanent/temporary contact relates the estimated number of wage and salaried workers having the unlimited duration/limited duration contract to the total wage and salaried workers.
Informal employment as share of total employment Informal employment includes the following sub-categories: (1) persons employed in the informal sector; (2) paid employees informally employed in the formal sector; and (3) unpaid family workers who work outside the informal sector. The indicator is presented as a share of total employment.
Share of persons employed in the informal sector in total employment The share of persons employed in the informal sector relates the estimated number of persons employed in the informal sector to the total number of employed persons. The 15th ICLS defined the informal sector in terms of characteristics of the enterprises (production units) in which the activities take place, rather than in terms of the characteristics of the persons involved or of their jobs. Those employed in the informal economy comprise all persons who, during a given reference period, were employed in at least one production unit that meets the informal sector guidelines, irrespective of their status in employment and whether it was their main or a secondary job.
Share of persons in informal employment outside the informal sector in total employment The share of persons in Informal employment outside the informal sector gives the share of employed individuals in the following sub-categories: (1) Paid workers who do not benefit from paid sick leave or paid holidays; and (2) all unpaid family workers who work outside the informal sector. The indicator is presented as a share in total employment.
Share of total employment by status in employment The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Information on the subcategories of the self-employed group – self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers’ cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers) – is presented wherever possible. The share of total employment by status in employment presents data for these status in employment as a percentage of total employment. The method of classifying employment by status is based on the 1993 International Classification by Status in Employment (ICSE), which classifies jobs held by persons at a point in time with respect to the type of explicit or implicit employment contract the person has with other persons or organizations. Such status classifications reflect the degree of economic risk, an element of which is the strength of the attachment between the person and the job, and the type of authority over establishments and other workers that the person has or will have.
Share of total employment by sector (ISIC 4) The indicator for employment by sector divides employment into 21 groupings of economic activity (ISIC Rev. 4): A- Agriculture, forestry and fishing, B-Mining and quarrying, C- Manufacturing, D- Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, E- Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities, F- Construction, G- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, H- Transportation and storage, I- Accommodation and food service activities, J- Information and communication, K- Financial and insurance activities, L- Real estate activities, M- Professional, scientific and technical activities, N- Administrative and support service activities, O- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security, P- Education, Q- Human health and social work activities, R- Arts, entertainment and recreation, S- Other service activities, T- Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use, U- Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies. The share of total employment by sector presents data for these sectors as a percentage of total employment. The sectors of economic activity are defined according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4 (2008).
Share of total employment by sector (ISIC 3) The indicator for employment by sector divides employment into 17 groupings of economic activity (ISIC Rev. 3): A- Agriculture, hunting and forestry, B- Fishing, C- Mining and quarrying, D- Manufacturing, E- Electricity, gas and water supply, F- Construction, G- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods, H- Hotels and restaurants, I- Transport, storage and communications, J- Financial intermediation, K- Real estate, renting and business activities, L- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security, M- Education, N- Health and social work, O- Other community, social and personal service activities, P - Activities of private households as employers and undifferentiated production activities of private households, Q - Extraterritorial organizations and bodies. The share of total employment by sector presents data for these sectors as a percentage of total employment. The sectors of economic activity are defined according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3 (1990).
Share of total employment by aggregate sector The indicator for employment by aggregate sector divides employment into three broad groupings of economic activity: agriculture, industry and services. Manufacturing is also shown separately although this is only one sub-category of Industry. The share of total employment by aggregate sector presents data for the aggregate sectors as a percentage of total employment. Categories are defined according to The sectors of economic activity are defined according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3 (1990) and Revision 4 (2008), such that Agriculture equals categories A+B (ISIC3) and A (ISIC4); Industry equals the sum of categories C-F (ISIC3) and B-F (ISIC4); and Services equals the sum of categories G-Q (ISIC3) and G-U (ISIC4).
Share of total employment by occupation (ISCO-88) The indicator for employment by occupation classifies jobs into major groups, with the groups defined by the classification that is used. Most internationally comparable data currently available are classified according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1988 (ISCO-88), with the following major groups (1) Legislators, senior officials and managers; (2) Professionals; (3) Technicians and associate professionals; (4) Clerks; (5) Service workers and shop and market sales workers; (6) Skilled agricultural and fishery workers; (7) Craft and related trades workers; (8) Plant and machine operators and assemblers; (9) Elementary occupations; and (10) Armed forces. The share of total employment by occupation presents data for these groups of occupations as a percentage of total employment.
Share of total employment by occupation (ISCO-68) The indicator for employment by occupation classifies jobs into major groups, with the groups defined according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1968 (ISCO-68). The major groups for the occupations are: (0/1) Professional, technical and related workers; (2) Administrative and managerial Workers; (3) Clerical and related workers; (4) Sales workers; (5) Service workers; (6) Agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen and hunters; (7/8/9) Production and related workers, transport equipment operators and labourers; (10) Workers not classifiable by occupation and members of the armed forces. The share of total employment by occupation presents data for these groups of occupations as a percentage of total employment.
Part-time employment rate The indicator on part-time workers focuses on individuals whose working hours total less than “full time”, as a proportion of total employment. Because there is no agreed international definition as to the minimum number of hours in a week that constitute full-time work, the dividing line is determined either on a country-by-country basis or through the use of special estimations. For the purpose of this database, a cut-off of 30 actual hours worked per week was applied. The part-time employment rate is a measure of the proportion of a country's employed population that works less than 30 hours per week.
Full-time employment rate Because there is no agreed international definition as to the minimum number of hours in a week that constitute full-time work, the dividing line is determined either on a country-by-country basis or through the use of special estimations. For the purpose of this database, a cut-off of 30 actual hours worked per week was applied. The full-time employment rate is a measure of the proportion of a country's employed population that works 30 hours or more per week.
Share of total employment by hours worked per week The share of total employment by hours worked per week relates to the hours that employed persons work during the reference week. The following hour bands are applied in the measurement: less than 15 hours worked per week, between 15 and 24 hours, between 25 and 34 hours, between 35 and 39 hours, between 40 and 48 hours, between 49 and 59 hours, 40 hours and over, 50 hours and over and 60 hours and over, as available.
Relaxed unemployment rate The relaxed unemployment rate is the proportion of the labour force that does not have a job and is available for work. It 'relaxes' the actively searching for work criteria that is required for the strict definition of unemployment. Relaxed unemployment is therefore defined as the sum of persons who did not engage in any work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self employment, were available for work but did not actively seek it.
Share of unemployed looking for first job The share of unemployed looking for first job is the estimated number of unemployed individuals who have never been employed to the country's total unemployed population. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Share of unemployed with previous job experience (job leavers) The share of unemployed with previous job experience is the estimated number of unemployed individuals who have been previously employed to the country's unemployed population. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Long-term unemployment rate (unemployed for one year or longer) The long-term unemployment rate is the measure of the unemployed persons with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer (52 weeks and over) as a percentage of the overall labour force. Unemployment tends to have more severe effects the longer it lasts. Short periods of joblessness can normally be dealt with through unemployment compensation, savings and, perhaps, assistance from family members. Unemployment lasting a year or longer, however, can cause substantial financial hardship, especially when unemployment benefits either do not exist or have been exhausted. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Short-term unemployment rate (unemployed less than one year) The short-term unemployment rate is the measure of the unemployed persons with continuous periods of unemployment for less than one year as a percentage of the overall labour force. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Share of long-term unemployed in total unemployment The share of long-term unemployed is the measure of the unemployed persons with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer (52 weeks and over) as a percentage of the total unemployed population. Unemployment tends to have more severe effects the longer it lasts. Short periods of joblessness can normally be dealt with through unemployment compensation, savings and, perhaps, assistance from family members. Unemployment lasting a year or longer, however, can cause substantial financial hardship, especially when unemployment benefits either do not exist or have been exhausted.
Share of short-term unemployed in total unemployment The share of short-term unemployed in total unemployment measures the proportion of those unemployed for less than one year in the total unemployed population. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Share of labour force by level of educational attainment The share of labour force by level of educational attainment demonstrates the distribution of those who are in the labour force according to five levels of schooling: less than one year, pre-primary level, primary level, secondary level and tertiary level. The categories used in the indicator are conceptually based on the levels of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Information on levels of educational attainment is currently the best available indicator of labour force skill levels. These are important determinants of a country’s capacity to compete successfully in world markets and to make efficient use of rapid technological advances; they are also among the factors determining the employability of workers. The concept of economic activity was adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Economic activity (aka labour force participation) is defined broadly in terms of the production of goods and services as set forth in the System of National Accounts (SNA). Persons are considered economically active if (and only if) they contribute or are available to contribute to the production of goods and services falling within the SNA production boundary.
Share of unemployment by level of educational attainment The share of unemployment by level of educational attainment the percentage distribution of a country’s total unemployed according to five levels of schooling: less than one year, pre-primary level, primary level, secondary level, and tertiary level. The categories used in the indicator are conceptually based on the levels of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). This indicator highlights the relationship between the educational attainment of workers and unemployment and, in so doing, provides hints concerning changes in employment demand. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Unemployment rate by level of educational attainment The unemployment rate by level of educational attainment is the share of unemployed according to five levels of schooling - less than one year, pre-primary level, primary level, secondary level, and tertiary level - in the total labour force having the same level of education. The categories used in the indicator are conceptually based on the levels of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). This indicator highlights the relationship between the educational attainment of workers and unemployment and, in so doing, provides hints concerning changes in employment demand. The unemployed are those who are not engaged in any kind of work or economic activity, be it paid employment or self-employment, but who are either seeking work or are available for such work.
Inactivity rate by level of educational attainment The inactivity rate by level of educational attainment is a measure of the proportion of a country’s working-age population that is not engaged actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work, by five levels of schooling: less than one year, pre-primary level, primary level, secondary level, and tertiary level. The categories used in the indicator are conceptually based on the levels of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). The concept of economic activity was adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Economic activity (aka labour force participation) is defined broadly in terms of the production of goods and services as set forth in the System of National Accounts (SNA). Persons are considered economically inactive if (and only if) they did contribute or are not available to contribute to the production of goods and services falling within the SNA production boundary.
Average monthly wages Wages are a widely used measure of the general level of workers’ income. This indicator covers average wages for paid employees only. Depending on the information available in the datasets, average wages are calculated for all employed youth with non-zero wages from the main job, and is expressed in country's local currency. "Wages" is used as the standard for this indicator, although some countries capture "earnings" instead. The proper coverage is indicator in the record's notes.
Working population below US$1.25 poverty line as share of total employment Working poverty is measured as the proportion of employed people living below the international poverty lines of US$1.25 and US$2 a day. Poverty status is determined at the household level, with poor households defined as those with per-capita expenditure below the given poverty line. In order to maximize comparability across countries, international poverty lines are used, whereby prices in local currencies are converted using purchasing power parity exchange rates and adjusting for inflation.
Working population below US$2 poverty line as share of total employment Working poverty is measured as the proportion of employed people living below the international poverty lines of US$1.25 and US$2 a day. Poverty status is determined at the household level, with poor households defined as those with per-capita expenditure below the given poverty line. In order to maximize comparability across countries, international poverty lines are used, whereby prices in local currencies are converted using purchasing power parity exchange rates and adjusting for inflation.